Carolincik Carolincik

www.carolereckinger.co.uk Born in Luxemburg, the awareness that she lived under conditions of privilege, even comparatively with the rest of Europe, encouraged her to contribute her time and energy to the socially disadvantaged, marginalized and voiceless. She completed a BA in Development Studies and Southeast Asian Studies as well as an MSc International Politics at the University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies. Hearing testimonies of abuse and witnessing the slow disappearance of a traditional mode of life in Indonesian Papua encouraged her for the first time to take up photography as a tool of showing the outside world the injustices happening in an area where journalists are not free to enter since 2003. She has furthermore worked as a freelance journalist and has published over 200 articles on human rights, social issues and contemporary politics in Luxemburg and abroad

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Bitter Oranges - African migrant labo...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
28 Jul 2013

Most African migrants and refugees who enter Europe through Lampedusa end up working on the fruit and vegetable plantations in southern Italy. Every year around Christmas thousands of migrant workers pick oranges for a hunger wage in the village of Rosarno, Calabria.

For the rest of the year not much work is available in Rosarno, but some people earned so little that they can not afford the journey to another region to find work for the rest of the year. They stay all year around, barely having enough to eat during the long hot summer months where very little work is available.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in Ind...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

Across the more than 17,000 islands that encompass Indonesia, more than 380,000 people have been tested HIV positive (with a population of over 242,000,000). The worst affected region is the two most easternmost provinces Papua and West Papua, where a generalized epidemic is underway. With only 1,5 percent of Indonesia’s population, the two provinces account for over 15 per cent of all Indonesia’s new HIV cases in 2011 . The HIV prevalence rate is 11 times higher than the national average and has reached 3.5% . In 2006, AusAid expected 3.61% of the population in Papua to be HIV positive by 2025 . In fact it has reached this level more than ten years earlier than predicted.

The prevalence rate among ethnic Papuans is almost twice as high as among the Indonesian newcomers . Contrary to the rest of Indonesia where the epidemic is mainly concentrated among high risk groups such as injection drug users and sex workers, in Papua transmission is almost entirely through heterosexual relations (97,1%) and has very much spread to the low-risk population. Indonesian health officials often blame cultural sex practices such as 'wife swapping' for the rapid spread of HIV in Papua, but transmigration and large resource extraction projects have fed the sex industry, which has also been a major driver of the spread of the disease.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in Ind...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

In their 2012 report, UNAIDS highlighted the recent successes in combating HIV/AIDS around the world. Everywhere countries are making historic gains and 25 low- and middle-income countries showed a 50% reduction in the rate of new HIV infections in 2011 compared to 2001 . In Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in the world, new HIV infections have dropped by 37%. While most national epidemics appear to have stabilized, HIV incidence, however, rapidly increased in two Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia and the Philippines.

Across the more than 17,000 islands that encompass Indonesia, more than 380,000 people have been tested HIV positive (with a population of over 242,000,000). The worst affected region is the two most easternmost provinces Papua and West Papua, where a generalized epidemic is underway. With only 1,5 percent of Indonesia’s population, the two provinces account for over 15 per cent of all Indonesia’s new HIV cases in 2011 . The HIV prevalence rate is 11 times higher than the national average and has reached 3.5% . In 2006, AusAid expected 3.61% of the population in Papua to be HIV positive by 2025 . In fact it has reached this level more than ten years earlier than predicted.

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Papuan women: the backbone of society
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
13 Dec 2012

The two Papua provinces remain Indonesia’s poorest region despite being home to the world’s second largest rain forest, and some of the greatest natural reserves in gold, timber gas and fisheries. Indigenous women find themselves at the bottom of the economic and social hierarchy, and yet they form the backbone of Papuan society.

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Gangjeong: the non-violent struggle ...
Gangjeong, South Korea
By Carolincik
28 Nov 2012

For the past five years, villagers and peace activists from all over South Korea have been fighting the decision to build a naval base in a UNESCO biosphere reserve. Since construction started in 2009, protesters have been blocking the entrance of the gate day and night, and every hour about 300 police descend upon them to clear the way for the cement trucks to enter the site.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

Rosarno is sporadically in the media during the winter months when the orange harvest takes place. However, many migrant workers stay all year round in Rosarno and during the long, hot summer months not much work is available. Quite a few people have no other choice than to stay because they have not enough money to travel elsewhere in Italy to find seasonal work.

Finding enough to eat becomes the main occupation of those who stay behind. The blue tents, erected by the city council are too hot to even sleep in during the night. During the day, temperatures in these tents can go up to 50 degrees celsius.

A young man from Nigeria, who has been in Rosarno for a couple of years tells us that he wants to go home to his family. The situation at home would never become as worse as it is in Southern Italy. With no papers and no money, however, even going home becomes impossible. Even if he could go home, he would be too ashamed to tell his family that he has no money saved up after all these years. They would never believe me what I lived through in Europe he tells us.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

On days when no work is found, people have no choice but to sit around and kill time. On rainy days it is impossible to dry the clothes completely. Medical care is nearly non-existant.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

Many people only find work a few days every month, even during the busy winter months. Some people share their meagre wages to buy food communally. Others survive with handouts from the church.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

This makeshift camp on the outskirts of Rosarno lies between a motorway and an industrial area. There is no running water or electricity. The Sudanese and Chadians who live here all have refugee status. In theory, refugees in Italy are entitled to social and health care. But in practice, missing state structures and funds mean that even refugees with residence status are dependent to accept any job to survive.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

The ones that arrive too late to receive a bed in a container or tent city, need to find another place to stay. With the low wages many people are not able to rent a room in the city and all over the outskirts of Rosarno makeshift camps develop. They have no electricity or running water.

During the winter months it rains most days. Coming home from a days work in the plantations, or standing by the side of the road hoping for a job, people have trouble to dry their clothes.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

The winters in Rosarno are cold and rainy. Only the ones who arrive early enough get a space in a tent or in a container. Spaces fill up quickly, and in order to get a bed, people need to arrive weeks before jobs are available.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

The living conditions of the African migrant workers are horrendous. During the winter months, when thousands arrive in the hope to find work, slum cities develop. The conditions in the squalid camps are similar to those in war zones one of the rare doctors who visit the slums tells us. In many of the makeshift camps there is no running water or electricity. Some of the camps are controlled by the mafia, and people are forced to pay for services they often never receive.

View the full collection here: http://transterramedia.com/collections/1314

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

Finding work is not easy, even during the labor intensive winter months. With the first sunlight, hundreds of African migrant workers flock to the city centre. They wait on the side of the road and hope someone will pass by and offer them a days work. People who do not work under a gangmaster who organises them regular work are often waiting for hours, without luck. We met some people who only find work about 5 days a month. Some of the people, like on this picture wait all day long until the evening. There is nothing else to do, than to look for work.

With more and more people arriving, competition for the badly paid orange harvesting becomes intense. Desperate, people are willing to work for less and less money.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

The market price for oranges has fallen below the cost of production for cheap oranges used for concentrates. Most farmers only survive because of EU agricultural subsidies. Even with the subsidies, some farmers leave the oranges to rot, as it is not worth harvesting them anymore.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

Harvesting oranges in the cold winter months is hard. Most of the thousands of African migrants work without a contract. The usual wage for a days work is 25 Euros. Depending on the farmers, some get paid by box, which means 1 Euro for 25 kilos. When you work really hard from the early morning hours until sunset, the strong and healthy ones can sometimes make up to 40 Euros a day, a young man from Burkina Faso tells us. But this is not usual. Gangmasters usually charge extra fees for transport and sometimes even a compulsory lunch.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

Italy is a major producer of citrus fruits in Europe and Calabria is the second biggest orange growing area. Much of the harvesting of Italy's 870,000-ton annual orange crop comes from this area. The majority of the oranges grown around Rosarno are cheap, industrial grade fruits favoured for processing into concentrates.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

Calabria is still a region of emigration, because unemployment and corruption are high. The tourism industry is poorly developed and the Calabrian mafia, the 'Ndrangheta - which is said to control the orchards of the south alongside the European cocaine trade - ubiquitous. The decay and the absence of the state are visible everywhere.

Rosarno has many long straight roads seemingly leading to nowhere. Rubbish is lying everywhere and local residents dispose of it in the outskirts.

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno, Italy
By Carolincik
29 Jul 2013

Rosarno in Calabria, Southern Italy has about 15,000 inhabitants. It is one of the poorest areas in the whole of Italy and unemployment is very high. It is one of the main orange producing areas in Europe and each winter, thousands of migrants travel to this small agricultural town to scratch a living picking oranges that will end up on sale in markets and supermarkets all over Europe.

In January 2010, the issue of slave labour and the squalid living conditions in Rosarno went through the media, but the interest waned quickly. At that time, the field workers had rebelled against the oppression and inhumane living and working conditions. There was no resistance until then or since then, because the never-ending reservoir of people willing to work for less and less money in order to pay for food is not ending. Without work permits migrants live in constant fear of being betrayed to the police.

In January 2010, young followers of the 'Ndrangheta shot several black migrant workers with shotguns. Although this practice was not an isolated case, plantation workers came together in solidarity for the first time and erected roadblocks. Clashes ensued, cars and shop windows were damaged. The media spoke of the "Black Mob". But Rosarno is - as already announced at the entrance of the town - a video-monitored city. The evaluation of the video surveillance brought to light, contrary to the expectations of many, that in reality not the migrants had plundered the city and beaten up locals, but on the contrary, groups of local Italians had performed a veritable manhunt. In the days following the riots, crowds of Africans fled from Rosarno.

Desperate to find work however, they returned the next winter and ever since. The work and living conditions have not improved

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Bitter Oranges - African Migrant Work...
Rosarno Italy
By Carolincik
28 Jul 2013

Most African migrants and refugees who enter Europe through Lampedusa end up working on the fruit and vegetable plantations in Southern Italy. Every year around Christmas thousands of migrant workers pick our oranges for a hunger wage in the village of Rosarno, Calabria.

For the rest of the year not much work is available in Rosarno, but some people earned so little that they can not afford the journey to another region to find work for the rest of the year. They stay all year around, barely earning enough to eat during the long hot summer months where very little work is available.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

Prostitutes entertain a customer in a specially dedicated prositution zone in Sentani, Jayapura district. Migrant prostitutes mostly work in official and semi-official brothels and require clients to wear condoms. Indigenous Papuan prostitues, however, work on the streets and are not supported by any kind of official on unofficial structure, greatly increasing the risk of abuse and HIV infection.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

Men watch a condom use demonstration during an HIV/AIDS awareness raising session in a local market in Wamena. Condoms are available in pharmacies but rarely used by indigenous Papuans.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

Men watch a condom use demonstration during an HIV/AIDS awareness raising session in a local market in Wamena. Condoms are available in pharmacies but rarely used by indigenous Papuans.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

ARV medicine is free in Papua, but there are only two different types available. S. (14) has suffered from painful rashes and skin problems since she started her treatment, but there are no alternative ARV cocktails available.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

An NGO worker shows samples of ARV medecine to senior high school students during an HIV/AIDS awareness raising workshop. Youngsters in Papua are mostly unaware of the risks of unprotected sex and children as young as eleven years old are HIV+.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

S. (15) lies under her blanket on a hospital bed. She was diagnosed with AIDS a few weeks earlier and is still too week to start ARV therapy. She died six weeks after the photograph was taken.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

ARV medicine is free in Papua but is not available outside of major cities

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

A women's disfigured hands tell of a long history of loss. Traditionally Dani women amputate a finger everytime a close member of the family deceases.

The fact that HIV infection is higher among ethnic Papuans is representative of greater socio-economic inequalities. Much remains to be done to reach the United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS and the Millennium Development goals. In Papua, the severity of the situation has been completely underestimated by the authorities and so far, their response to the epidemic has been severely inadequate. In order to decrease dissatisfaction with their rule, a general attitude of the Indonesian government has been to provide local governments in Papua with large amounts of money. It is then assigned to various programs without proper preliminary research and subsequent monitoring. The actual causes of the problem however, are rarely tackled. The poor standards or complete lack of health services and education throughout the region not only facilitate the spread of the disease, they also severely impede any efficient response to the epidemic. Indeed, although the provincial governments have made HIV testing and treatment free, many Papuans do not have access to health care or education and are unlikely to be reached by awareness raising campaigns any time soon. In the meantime, the virus continues its deadly advance into the highlands.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

A Papuan student eats his lunch of chicken and rice.
A lack of knowledge about the modes of transmission coupled with the long running political conflict and the climate of mistrust and fear it has borne, has led to many misconceptions and a number of conspiracy theories. The suspicion that HIV has been introduced specifically to decimate the indigenous population is widespread. A common belief among highland Papuans is that chicken served in restaurants (mostly run by non-Papuans) is injected with the HIV virus to intentionally infect them. These misconceptions about the virus have a direct impact on the lives and welfare of people living with HIV/AIDS.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

A member of YPKM, a local NGO, demonstrates the use of a condom during an HIV and STD awareness raising campaign at a local market. These kind of campaigns are still very rare.

Sexual health awareness is extremely low among the Papuan population as a whole.

Indonesian health officials often blame cultural sex practices such as 'wife swapping' for the rapid spread of HIV in Papua, but transmigration and large resource extraction projects have fed the sex industry, which has also been a major driver of the spread of the disease. The exclusion of large parts of the indigenous populations from development and access to the market economy has led increasing levels of Papuan women to engage in prostitution. Poverty is such that transactions often take place in unregulated open air or street dwelling sites with no safety precautions. One NGO worker said that some very young girls sell their bodies for less than 50 cent, for which you cannot even buy a packet of cigarettes or condoms. In semi official prostitution establishments, immigrant prostitutes (usually wearing condoms) charge 20 Euro upwards.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

HIV testing and ARV therpy in Wamena are free. Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) in Wamena only started in 2007, at the initiative of a church sponsored clinic. This led to the public clinics and the hospital offering the service shortly afterwards. The latest statistics for the whole Jayawijaya region, from September 2012, show that 2504 (with a population of over 200,000) people have tested positive for the disease. However, the majority of cases stay undetected

Many people do not get tested due to the lack of services in their area, high travel costs or lack of roads. Local clinics (Puskesmas) outside of the city are often closed and the staff absent.

The prevalence rate among ethnic Papuans is almost twice as high as among the Indonesian newcomers . Contrary to the rest of Indonesia where the epidemic is mainly concentrated among high risk groups such as injection drug users and sex workers, in Papua transmission is almost entirely through heterosexual relations (97,1%) and has very much spread to the low-risk population.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

Two nurses insert an intravenous drip into Yulianus'* (23) hand. Yulianus has been undergoing ARV therapy for the past two years, but often forgets when he feels well. Feeling weak, with no appetite and coughing blood a local NGO recommended he should go to hospital. He was diagnosed with TB.

Many Papuans are reluctant to go to hospital as most of the staff is non-Papuan leading to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings. The upheaval and the high costs incurred for the family to stay in town or to visit them is another deterrent.

In the Papuan culture one will only seek medical attention when it is impossible to walk or work. HIV/AIDS is still a relatively new disease in the region, and people are still unaware of its modes of transmission and consequences.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

In the courtyard of the public hospital in Wamena, contaminated needles, blood packs and other highly hazardous waste lie unchecked next to hospital vegetable garden.

People from all over the valley have to come here for treatment, sometimes walking for days.

The poor standards or complete lack of health services and education throughout the region not only facilitate the spread of the disease, they also severely impede any efficient response to the epidemic. Indeed, although the provincial governments have made HIV testing and treatment free, many Papuans do not have access to health care or education and are unlikely to be reached by awareness raising campaigns any time soon.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
01 Feb 2013

Jayawijaya regency with Wamena as the largest city in the highlands of Papua is one of the worst HIV affected areas in Indonesia. No roads connect the city to the provincial coastal capital of Jayapura, and everything needs to be flown in by planes. Data gathered by local NGOs in 2012 shows over 2500 people have tested positive with HIV since the testing started in 2007. These numbers, however, do not reflect the reality of the situation as many cases stay undetected.

In an attempt to ease Papua’s desire for independence and rectify some of the past abuses within the province, Special Autonomy (Otsus) was granted in 2001. Although this has greatly increased the funding to the region, very little progress has been made in crucial areas such as health and education and Papuan civil society seems to agree that it has failed to bring about the sweeping changes it was aimed to inspire. Development has profited to a select few and has further increased social stratification. Many communities still lack the basic infrastructures such as clean running water, sanitation and electricity and people in remote rural locations, where roughly 75% of all indigenous people live, have been largely left out by development. Access to quality health and education is a problem for large sections of the indigenous population, especially outside of urban centers.

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Positive is negative: HIV/AIDS in the...
Wamena, Indonesia
By Carolincik
26 Mar 2013

Among majestic mountains in the highlands of Papua, a generalised HIV epidemic is underway.

The island of New Guinea has been largely isolated from the influence of the rest of the world for thousands of years. In the western half (now part of Indonesia), in the Baliem valley one of the first agricultural centers developed over 9,000 years ago. It was only in the 1950s that the valley began to open up to the outside world with the arrival of the first European missionaries, following the 'discovery' of the valley in 1938.

Home to the world’s second largest rain forest, and some of the greatest natural reserves in gold, timber gas and fisheries, the two Papua provinces remain Indonesia’s poorest region. Ever since Indonesia controversially ‘integrated’ Papua in 1969 under the auspices of the UN, it has implemented an aggressive modernization campaign that maximizes resource exploitation. Apart from a small elite who could be said to have both participated in and reaped the benefits of this development, the majority of indigenous Papuans have remained at its margins.