Jonathan Kalan is an award-winning photographer and journalist specializing in social innovation, technology, entrepreneurship and business in emerging markets. He has traveled to over 44 countries, lived and worked in South Asia and Africa, and collaborated with NGO’s, social enterprises, technology start ups and media companies. Over the past fews years, has written for the BBC, The Atlantic, Al Jazeera (English) The Boston Globe, Global Post, Huffington Post, Christian Science Monitor, GOOD, Wamda, The Toronto Star and more. He currently writes a column for BBC Future, called 'Matter of Life and Tech'. He has photographed for The New York Times, BBC, The Guardian (UK), Financial Times, The Huffington Post, Associated Press, Makeshift Magazine, International Federation of the Red Cross, among others. Jonathan is Nairobi's Sandbox Co-Ambassador, a contributing writer for Wamda, and a Staff Writer for NextBillion.net. He has presented at conferences across the U.S. from Yale University to NTen, and taught a seminar on strategic visual communications for social entrepreneurship for Columbia University in Amman, Jordan. Jonathan is currently based in Nairobi, Kenya.
Dozens of coffee buyers from around the world visit Musasa Coffee Cooperative in Rwanda, hoping to source the next best brew. Jonathan Kalan, Rwanda.
An international collaboration between the U.S. and Rwanda called PEARL trained young Rwandans not only how to make top coffee but also how to taste and judge the final product. Uzziel Habineza, a genocide survivor, worked his way up from managing a washing station to representing one of the world's largest coffee suppliers, Volcafe. Habineza is an expert cupper and coffee roaster.
During cupping sessions, judges loudly slurp coffee and spit it out into bins. Kayonza, Rwanda.
Sarah Kluth, buyer for Intelligentsia Coffee & Tea, cups Rwanda's best coffee at Rwashoscco's testing laboratory in Kigali, Rwanda.
Stephen Vick, a buyer from Intelligentsia Coffee & Tea, shows off his tattoos of coffee cherries to locals in a coffee-growing town Western Rwanda.
Women sort parchment at Musasa Coffee Cooperative, northern Rwanda.
Uzziel's scorecard. Specialty coffee must score above 80 points in a wide range of categories such as body, acidity and flavor.
A woman sorts coffee parchment at Nyabumera Washing Station, Western Rwanda.
Coffee parchment after being de-pulped and fully-washed, an essential process which helps separate 'specialty' coffee from Ordinary coffee.
Coffee cherries are loaded onto a scale at Nyarusiza Coffee Washing Station in southern Rwanda. Depending on the season, farmers receive 300-350 RWF (~$.50) per Kilo of cherries for specialty coffee. Previously, they received only 150 RWF per Kilo for ordinary coffee parchment- which is more labor-intenstive. 1 Kilo of parchment roughly equals 7 Kilos of cherries.
Sorting the beans for quality is mostly done by women, who earn about $1.25 per day. Musasa Coffee Cooperative, northern Rwanda.
Coffee being ground for the Cup of Excellence Pre-Trials, Kayonza, Rwanda.
Uzziel Habineza, a Rwandan cupper and roaster, in the laboratory at Starbucks Coffee's HQ in Kigali, Rwanda. A genocide survivor from Nyabumera, Rwanda, he is now the sole representative for Volcafe, one of the world's largest coffee suppliers, in Rwanda.
The growing demand for premium coffee has had a positive impact on many small farmers. Uwera Gema, a 60-year-old farmer in southern Rwanda, used the extra income to send her six children to school. Her family owns 700 coffee trees and produced one ton of coffee cherries in 2011.
Rwanda was the first African country to hold the "Cup of Excellence", one of the world's most prestigeous specialty coffee competitions, in 2008. Now in it's 4th year in Rwanda, Liana Ishinwe, 25, scores coffee for the Cup of Excellence Pre-Trials. Kayonza, Rwanda.
Manager of Musasa Coffee Cooperative. This coffee washing station in northern Rwanda won 2nd best in Rwanda during the 2010 Cup of Excellence.
Fresh cherries are depulped to separate the seeds/parchment from the soft flesh. For premium coffee, cherries must be depulped quickly after they are picked or they will become bitter.
A worker sifts through wet parchment after de-pulping at Nyarusiza Coffee Washing Station in southern Rwanda.
Built in 2000 as one of the first new coffee washing stations in Rwanda in decades, Cyarumba Washing Station, in Maraba, southern Rwanda, is famous for producing Rwanda's first local brand of specialty coffee, Cafe de Maraba.
After the genocide in 1994, Rwanda's coffee industry privatized, and the farmers learned to produce premium coffee. Now their beans are sought by coffee buyers and gurus around the world. Here, Sarah Kluth, a buyer from Intelligentsia Coffee & Tea in the U.S., visits a washing station in western Rwanda.
Women carry parchment to the drying tables for sorting at Cyarumba Washing Station, Maraba, southern Rwanda.
Laetitia Mukandahiro, 28, rose from being a coffee farmer's daughter in Gankenke, a small village in northern Rwanda, to one of Rwanda's most sought-after cuppers. She is now Head of Quality Control for KZ Noir. Kayonza, Rwanda.
Uzziel individually roasts small batches of local coffee beans for a round of cupping.
Uzziel Habineza, a Rwandan cupper and roaster, tests coffee from his home region, Nyambumera, at Rwashoscco's testing laboratory in Kigali, Rwanda.
Coffee cherries waiting to be weighed at Nyarusiza Coffee Washing Station in southern Rwanda.
Coffee parchment being sorted at Nyamubera Washing Station, western Rwanda. Sorting is mostly done by women, as seasonal day labor, for around 800 RWF/day ($1.25)
A dry-mill outside Huye, southern Rwanda, where coffee parchment is dried and processed into green beans for international export.
Premium coffee differs from regular coffee in two ways: It must be washed thoroughly, and it must score at least 80 points on a quality scale. Here, freshly picked coffee cherries are washed and sorted by weight at the Nyarusiza Coffee Washing Station.
Coffee parchment in a warehouse at Nkora Washing Station in Western Rwanda, one of Rwanda's oldest washing stations, waiting to be shipped to a dry-mill in Kigali for processing and export.
Rwanda has endless rolling hills, spotted with small family coffee farms. The altitude is about 5,600 feet near the shores of Lake Kivu in western Rwanda, making these cliffs an ideal place to grow premium coffee beans.
Welcome to Rwanda's coffee land, where some of the world's best coffee is grown. Here, Minani Anastase, president of Musasa Coffee Cooperative in northern Rwanda, looks over the coffee drying tables.
A paper printout of the Somali flag hangs on the wall. Despite dramatic shifts of power and control since the nation's independence, the flag, much like Daha, has remained unchanged.
An original business card of General Mohamed Farrah Hassan Aidid, one of Mogadishus most notorious warlords and former Chairman of the Somali National Alliance. A failed attempt by US Army Rangers in 1993 to capture General Aidid resulted in the now famous Black Hawk Down incident. He declared himself president of Somalia briefly, and died during a battle in 1996.
Business card of former Col. Axmed Cumar Jees. Throughout Somalias troubled recent history, Daha has remained an impartial and unbiased entity, printing for anyone who has attempted to control Mogadishu, legitimately or by force.
Receipts from the 1980s, before the Somali civil war. Some are written in Somali, others in Italian. The price, 6,650 Somali Shillings, is worth less than 25 cents today
UNDP's Somalia Annual Development Report from 1985. One notable excerpt: Currently, the government is not placing a high priority on the development of tourism. There nevertheless exists a considerable potential to exploit the attractions of the extensive and wholly unspoilt coast.
Liban, who inherited Daha after his father died, leafs through a collection of old receipts. As a teenager, Liban worked in the shop with his father after school, and briefly ran it in the 80s before moving to the US. When Liban visited in 1997, he found over $1 million in outstanding loans from the government, which had taken prints on loan but never paid. He quickly turned the shop around stating No credit for anyone!
Kasim moves swiftly around the machine. Like a dancer, he has style, a unique way of pushing, filling, cutting, pushing, rotating, and moving. He doesnt speak any English, but acts in effective gestures, like sign language. I check his handsnot one cut, missing finger, or bruise.
Dozens of boxes of hard metal typfaces fill a wooden shelf near the printer. Each box has the typeface name, and font sizes, from 8 through 48.
Despite working a letterpress for almost his whole life, Kasim still cannot read or write. He relies on his current assistant, Ali Abdullhi, to lay the type.