Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia
By Jeffrey Bright
17 Sep 2013

Motorcycle is loaded with drums of diesel and transported to nearby villages to be sold. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Oil Theft in Nigeria's Turbulent Nige...
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By U.S. Editor
23 May 2013

Crude oil theft has become a common phenomena in Africa's most populous nation, Nigeria, which ranks seventh among oil-producing nations. The majority of citizens in the Niger Delta live on less than $1 per day, despite the fact that the country possesses vast natural resources and produces over 2 million barrel of crude oil daily.

The resulting widespread poverty has turned many toward criminality for income, particularly oil theft.

Zoin Ibegi in the oil-rich Niger Delta says, "Many of us live below one cent a day, despite being blessed with crude oil whereby forcing many of us into illegal refinery business because we can't continue in this poverty circle."

On daily basis, crude oil is emptied into the rivers, owing to low technical-know-how of these locals are not educated on the ecological repercussions of their actions.

The Niger Delta's Joint Task Force (JTF) is responsible for eradicating oil theft in the region. Though citizens see crude oil theft as an option as a result of an inability for them to get out of poverty in another way, the JTF believes that communities in the region have shielded the "thieves" and are perpetuating a culture of criminality.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (24 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

Crude oil spilled to the ground in the illegal refinery camp in the Deibou community, along Nun river in the State of Bayelsa, Nigeria.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (13 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A boy hiding behind some drums, which are used to load refined oil at a river bank in Yenagoa, the capital of Niger's oil-rich state of Bayelsa.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (6 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A child has his bath in the Deibou community area of Bayelsa state near Nun river in the oil-rich Niger Delta. Thousands of people live on less than $1 per day, despite the fact that the Niger Delta ranks as the seventh-largest oil producing nation in the world.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (7 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A local man, Zoin Ibega, 47, poses for a portrait at Diebou community along the Nun river in Nigeria's oil rich state, Bayelsa.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (3 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A lady and man on a wooden boat carrying stolen crude in the oil-rich Niger Delta, where most people live below the poverty line.The locals say they make 10,000 Nigerian Naira, or $63, monthly to the break out of poverty circle.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (19 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

Tula Ebiowei, 50, and his colleague work along the Nun River in Nigeria's oil-rich state of Bayelsa.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (11 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A young lady going to a community toilet by the river bank in the Deibou community in Nigeria's oil-rich state of Bayelsa.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (23 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A man stands on a wooden boat containing stolen crude oil that will be conveyed to a refinery camp, along Nun river in Bayelsa State.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (22 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A child walks towards some containers filled with stolen crude oil the Deibou community of Bayelsa State.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (20 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A hose used to pump water into the distilling equipment at the illegal refinery camp along the Nun River.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (9 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A man walking into his house in Ikebiri community in the Nigeria's oil state,Bayelsa.Thousand of people live below one usd per day despite being blessed with crude oil and ranks seventh large oil producing nation in the world.
Most locals emerge in illicit act of stealing the crude and refined it to break out of poverty circle and also destroying the eco-system with thousand of crude spilling into the rivers

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (4 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

Foot wear wore by the illegal refinery worker in the oil rich Niger Delta,where the locals live below poverty line despite being blessed with crude oil with over 2,000000 barrels on daily basis.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (15 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

A cut-to-size drum fill with crude oil at an illegal refinery camp along the Nun river in the Nigeria oil rich state of Bayelsa. Thousand of people live below one usd per day despite being blessed with crude oil and ranks seventh large oil producing nation in the world.
Most locals emerge in illicit act of stealing the crude and refined it to break out of poverty circle and also destroying the eco-system with thousand of crude spilling into the rivers

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (25 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
18 May 2013

Drums and distilling equipment used at the refinery camp by the oil thieves along Nun river, in the State of Bayelsa, Nigeria

Frame 0004
Fracking Up Fares
Fares, Aswan
By zeer news
01 May 2013

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

In 2009, the company DANA GAS (UAE) started shale gas explorations near Fares, a small agricultural village on the West Bank of the Nile, 75 km North of Aswan.
The company employed a controversial technique known as hydraulic fracturing or "fracking", which uses a mixture of pressurized water and chemicals to release natural gas trapped in the shale rock. 
The village was soon flooded with groundwater and in January 2013 orchards, crops and houses were destroyed. 
Residents do not have results from the water tests that the government was supposed to carry out.  In addition to ecological concerns, property owners whose land was affected have received very little compensation from the gas extraction company (Dana Gas) or from the Egyptian government. The clean up efforts promised by the government have come to a halt and it is not known if and when they will resume. 

The case of Fares, however, differs from other documented cases of damages caused by fracking. 

The flooding is believed to be the result of seismic testings, a straightforward operation conducted prior to the extraction to determine the size of the shale. 

Therefore, this case shows:

  • how monitoring of the fracking operations --known to be possibly harmful for water reserves -- was poor or non-existent in an area close to the Nile

  • media usually focuses on fracking's direct effects. In Fares, however, damage was caused by a subsidiary effect of fracking

  •  land grabbing - although not through acquisition, but through destruction - occurred without compensation for the villagers and the denial of any responsibility on part of the company

  • the Egyptian government - under Mubarak, the SCAF, and the Muslim Brotherhood - failed to stand up against the company and protect its citizens

  • environmental concerns not only for the village's proximity to the Nile, but also for the destruction of many mature and rare trees

SHOT DESCRIPTION

00:00 - 00:17
Images of Upper Egypt, Map of Fares

VO: "75 km north of Aswan lies Fares, a village of 30,000 inhabitants, on the west bank of the Nile. Renowned as one of the principle producers of mangoes and dates in Egypt, the majority of Fares' residents are employed in the agricultural sector, making fields and crops the crux of the village's economy."

00:18 - 00:35 Images of the flooded fields, Sheikh Ahmed Abdel Hamid

VO: "However, in January 2013, flooding of groundwater devastated fields and orchards, and destroyed houses and local buildings in the village. The flooding has been attributed to the hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, operations by the company Dana Gas, whose extraction site, is only 10 km north of Fares.

00:36 - 00:47 Animated info-graphic on fracking

VO: "Fracking is a controversial technique used to extract natural gas from shale rock. This is done by creating fissures in the shale with a perforating gun, and then injecting a pressurized mixture of water and chemicals to release the trapped gas and bring it to the surface."

00:48 - 01:19 Interview with the Sheikh Ahmed Abdel Hamid (community leader), images of the fields

"It has started since 2009-- first they found that the soil became wet. Gradually, the water began to come on the surface, higher and higher, until it reached the level of one metre. This water has submerged about 2,000 feddans of land (840 hectares)."

01:20 - 01:26 Images of fields, uprooted palm tree

VO: Although the company is not fracking in Fares directly, the flooding is believed to be a result of Dana Gas's seismic testing using 'shot-holes'.

01:26 - 01:52 Animated info-graphic on seismic testing

VO: "Seismic testing uses 30 foot pipes that are inserted into the ground, and an explosion is detonated. The vibrations from the explosion bounce off the subsurface rock and travel back to the surface, where a grid of geophone sensors pick up the wavelengths, thus determining the expanse of the shale below. Ordinarily in the industry, the pipes are plugged in order to prevent flooding. But, these pipes were left open in the fields-- creating a pathway for flowing groundwater to stream upwards."

01:53 - 02:09 Images of fields, springs

VO: "The flooding reached a climax in January, but damage to the fields remains. Stagnant puddles of water exceeding 3 inches, cover entire fields. Groundwater continues to spring spontaneously, creating essentially a swamp out of homes and a formerly prosperous crop."

02:10 - 02:24 Interview with Mohamed Abdouh (farmer and teacher)

"Approximately about 150 families have to move, because of this problem. A lot of these families can't afford to build new houses."

02:25 - 02:36 Interview with Mohamed Abdouh, images of the local graveyard
"The most bitter thing for the villagers is that the graveyard of the village has completely submerged. "

02:37 - 03:06 Interview with Sheikh Ahmed Abdel Hamid in front of a house destroyed

"Approximately 2,000 feddans were flooded by the groundwater. it is more than 2,000 feddans. In these areas there were trees: palms, lemon, mango, berries and that now there is water (that are now flooded). It has more than a hundreds of thousands of doom, palms, mangoes, lemons, and all citrus and this is all the income for the village. These fields are the only income for the village "

03:07 - 03:20 Images of residents

VO: Residents state that there was virtually no consultation with the village prior to shale extraction. In 2009, they were told there may be gas reserves in their village, but the seismic testing carried out directly on their land, was not explained to them.

03:21 - 03:44

"They just came and drilled. When the farmers asked them they told (them) they were looking for oil. So the farmers were happy. If they found gas or oil on your land, you will have a good compensation. Good money as a compensation."

03:45 - 03:52 Images of a street seller, men sitting on the ground, kid riding a donkey

VO: "The governor of Aswan stated that the company would create 450 jobs for local residents, yet no one has been employed to date."

03:53 - 04:06 Images of children, the local school, man picking up bricks

VO: "Moreover, compensation remains a large concern for the residents' livelihood. Beyond the municipal government offering to help rebuild the hospital and school, very little money has actually met the hands of the land and home owners whose properties were damaged."

04:07 - 04:34 Interview with Mohamed Abdouh

"When the villagers went to make a sit-in in the company-- in the site there- -the responsibles came and told us they have given the clerks in the municipal council a big number-- a lot of money. When we returned to the municipal council, they denied that. So we are... we don't know how. We are now bewildered between them…"

04:35 - 04:49 Images of the cleanup operation site.

VO: "The government began cleanup efforts six months ago by draining the fields with pipes that would empty to a drainage canal and then run back into the Nile. The pipes though, were too small, and so the clean up project had come to a halt. When they will resume is unknown."

04:50 - 04:59 Images of Sheikh Ahmed Abdel Hamid, puddle of stagnant water, the Nile river from Fares' shore.

VO: "Residents still have not heard back from the municipal council abt the water test results, but maintain that the water is harmful, which is also a cause for concern due to its proximity to the Nile."

05:00 - 05:16 Images of Sheikh Ahmed Abdel Hamid, images of resident walking next to trees, man on the train.

VO:
In addition to the ecological concerns, it's significant that Fares' principal fields and orchards were destroyed, including many mature trees that had reached peak production. Thus not only costing the agricultural-centered village lost profits this year, but also for the years to come.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (2 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
06 Dec 2012

A filling station in the riverine community along the Nun river in Nigeria's oil state, Bayelsa.The locals say they make 10,000 monthly to the break out of poverty circle.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (18 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
29 Nov 2012

An illegal refinery worker, John Sowawi, pumps water into the distilling equipment that is used to refine the stolen crude oil along Nun River, in the rich in oil-state of Bayelsa, Nigeria.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (12 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
27 Nov 2012

A worker at an illegal refinery camp inspecting the refinery equipment as smokes emerge behind the drums, near river Nun in Nigeria's oil state of Bayelsa November 27, 2012.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (17 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
27 Nov 2012

50 year-old,Tula Ebiowei, pours water into the distilling equipment at the illegal refinery camp along the Nun river in the Nigeria's oil rich state of Bayelsa. Thousand of people live below one usd per day despite being blessed with crude oil and ranks seventh large oil producing nation in the world.
Most locals emerge in illicit act of stealing the crude and refined it to break out of poverty circle and also destroying the eco-system with thousand of crude spilling into the rivers.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (5 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
27 Nov 2012

Oil slick covers a lengthy parts of Nun river in Nigeria's oil state of Bayelsa. Both the oil campanies and the locals are guilty of spill occurring on daily bases polluting the whole eco-system where fish have moved for fresh water,also people have to moved to better their lives.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (10 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
27 Nov 2012

A pail containing a refined product at the illegal refinery camp along Nun River in the Nigeria's oil of state of Bayelsa.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (14 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
27 Nov 2012

An illegal refinery worker,John Tarila, fills a container with refined PMS product before shipping it out to end users along the River Nun in Nigeria's oil rich ,Bayelsa State. The locals say the make 10,000 monthly to break out of poverty circle.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (16 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
27 Nov 2012

Crude oil in a rainbow pattern on the Nun river in Southern Ijaw area,near river Nun in Nigeria's oil state of Bayelsa November 27, 2012.
The local people in Nigeria engage in a the illicit act known locally as 'oil bunkering'
hacking into pipelines to steal crude then refining it or selling it abroad.

Thumb sm
Nigeria Oil Theft (21 of 25)
Bayelsa, Nigeria
By Tife Owolabi
27 Nov 2012

50-year-old Tula Ebiowei, carries an empty oil container on his head to a place where it would be filled with refined product at an illegal refinery camp
along river Nun in Nigeria's oil state of Bayelsa November 27, 2012.

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia
By Jeffrey Bright
26 Jan 2011

Traditional oil miner scoops crude out of collection tank. The oil which has settled on the top of the water will be distilled into diesel when heated in an oil drum and then sold. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Traditional oil wells in Bojonegoro a regency in East Java. Previously known as a major producer of teak and tobacco, Bojonegoro is now the focus of renewed attention after a new oil field was found in the area. Bojonegoro, Indonesia.

Traditional oil wells in Bojonegoro Indonesia. Bojonegoro is a regency in East Java, Indonesia, about 110 km west of Surabaya. Previously known as a major producer of teak and tobacco, Bojonegoro is the focus of attention in Indonesia as a new oil field has been found in this area. This oil find is the biggest oil discovery in Indonesia in three decades and one of the biggest reserve in Indonesia.

This part of Java has had a long association with oil, and the Dutch, Indonesia's former colonial rulers, operated oil fields in the area although never realized the potential of Cepu. Freelance oil men use rickety wooden frames with pulleys, a few still operated by hand, to retrieve oil in wells up to 400 meters (1,300ft) deep. They then heat the oil on wood fires to burn off water. Miners said they could earn from 200,000 rupiah ($20) a day shared between a team of at least three.

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Traditional oil miners finish off the construction of a new oil derrick made of trees from the surrounding forest. This area in Cepu Indonesia is known as the 'eternal oil field'. Miners frequently set up new oil wells in the area. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Traditional oil miners prepare a disused oil derrick for renewed operation. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Traditional oil wells in Bojonegoro a regency in East Java. Previously known as a major producer of teak and tobacco, Bojonegoro is now the focus of renewed attention after a new oil field was found in the area. Bojonegoro, Indonesia. 25/01/2011.

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Traditional oil miner finishes his shift on the oil derrick. Miners use a fork shaped stick to insure the down shaft is correctly positioned when pumping oil. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Oil is pumped from the ground using a truck engine. The body of the truck is discarded and the engine and gearbox are set on the ground. A cable is wound around one of the wheels, which is then attached to the down hole pump. The operator puts the engine in neutral to drop the pump into the hole, and then puts it in reverse to wind up the wheel and pump out the crude oil/water emulsion. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

A traditional oil miner takes a rest as he waits for his processed diesel to be collect for sale in nearby villages. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Distilled diesel oil pours into a tank as miner waits for the sale to a distributor, when it will be sold in nearby villages.

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

A down hole pump releases a wave of crude oil and water onto the ground as part of the process of oil extraction. The miner uses a branch to control the down hole pump as it exits the ground. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Traditional oil miner prepares a fresh barrel with which to distil crude oil into diesel. Oil drums are buried in the ground with a pit dug beneath for the fire, creating a kilning effect the refining process can begin, lasting around 6-8 hours. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Traditional oil miner prepares a fresh barrel with which to distil crude oil into diesel. Oil drums are buried in the ground with a pit dug beneath for the fire, creating a kilning effect the refining process can begin, lasting around 6-8 hours. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011

Thumb sm
Traditional oil wells East Java Indon...
Cepu, Indonesia.
By Jeffrey Bright
25 Jan 2011

Miners exchange money for the purchase of diesel fuel at one of the oil wells. Cepu, Indonesia. 25/01/2011