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Bangladesh's Jamdani Sari
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
08 Jul 2015

In December 2013, the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated a major success as Bangladesh's Jamdani Sari weaving tradition, a labor-intensive and time-consuming form of hand loom weaving is recognized as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District.

A sari is the traditional garment worn by women in the Indian subcontinent, made up of a long strip of unstitched cloth, ranging from five to nine yards in length, which can be draped in various styles. The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist with one end then draped over the shoulders with the other. The Jamdani Sari is among the oldest styles, at more than 5,000 years old! Some people think that the sari was influenced by Greek or Roman toga, which we see on ancient statues. However, there is no solid historical evidence to this effect.

The sari is essentially designed to suit local conditions in the subcontinent. There are at least six varieties of Bengal handlooms, each deriving its name from the village in which it originated, and each with its own distinctive style. Dhaka was especially renowed for saris of fine muslin, a tradtion that carries on today. Jamdani is basically a transformation of the world famous Dhakai Muslin. According to their variety, fineness and patterns the traditional Dhakai Muslins were divided into specific categories. Among them, Aab-E-Rouhan, Shabnam, Sarband and Jamdani muslin were the most famous. Over the years the first three of these have vanished from history.

The production, marketing and export of Jamdani has somehow maintained its continuity. Dhaka has a history of only four hundred years from 1610 A.D., but the history of the cotton clothes of the region reveals more ancient traditions. Although most of the history of Jamdani weaving os lost in the mists of antiquity, it's known that trade in the fabric was established at least 2,000 years ago.

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Jamdani Sari 01
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 02
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 03
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 04
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 05
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

Portrait of a Bangladeshi weaver of Jamdani Saris in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 06
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 07
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

Portrait of a Bangladeshi weaver of Jamdani Saris in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 08
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 09
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A whole saller of Jamdani Saris shows a piece from his collection in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 10
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

Jamdani Saris are made from the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 11
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A whole saller of Jamdani Saris shows a piece from his collection in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 12
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 13
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 17
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 18
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 19
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 20
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 21
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 23
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 24
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 25
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 14
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jun 2015

A model shows off a Bangladeshi traditional Jamdani Sari in Dhaka on 13 June 2015 when the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated the Jamdani Sari being recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Jamdani Sari 15
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jun 2015

A model shows off a Bangladeshi traditional Jamdani Sari in Dhaka on 13 June 2015 when the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated the Jamdani Sari being recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Jamdani Sari 16
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jun 2015

A model shows off a Bangladeshi traditional Jamdani Sari in Dhaka on 13 June 2015 when the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated the Jamdani Sari being recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Child Labor in Uganda
Northern Uganda
By ric francis
08 Jun 2015

Children in northern Uganda are indoctrinated to adapt to a world of limitation and oppression as they are exploited as laborers. Nine years after the end of hostilities between government and the Lord’s Resistance Army northern Uganda is plagued by economic woes which date back to the fighting, especially in regards to children and labor. Economic problems have contributed to children playing a key role in livelihood strategies of income for labor constrained households. The objectification of children as tools for labor denies that the world exists for them as a reality apart from their ability to conform to the status quo, in which the pursuit of education is not the norm. Such a situation in which children are prevented by economic and societal forces from engaging in the process of decision-making, as it relates to education, is one of oppression. The means used are not important - such alienation is to quite simply turn them into objects to be used. While household chores undertaken by children in their home environment are a normal part of family life, they become problematic when they interfere with children’s education or are excessive, in which case they are tantamount to child labor.

FULL ARTICLE AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST

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Child Labor in Uganda 06
Codong Village, Uganda
By ric francis
08 Jun 2015

July 17, 2014 - Codong Village (Agago District) - Lili Amony, 12, and Evelyn Akot, 7, carrying Samuel Ocen, her one-year old brother, return from working in the field; they did not attend school on this day because of chores.

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Child Labor in Uganda 02
Obolokome Village, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 18, 2014 - Obolokome Village (Agago District) - Nighty Akwero, 7, must work in a cassava field on this day instead of going to school because her mother is home with an injured foot. Children constitute an invaluable source of stopgap labour for households re-establishing livelihood strategies nine years after the end of the armed confict with the Lord's Resistance Army.

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Child Labor in Uganda 03
Obolokome Village, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 18, 2014 - Obolokome Village (Agago District) - Ben Okidi, 8, right, and Alfred Olanya, 10, center, along with two other brothers watch over the family's herd of cattle; all the brothers missed school on this day because of the chore.

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Child Labor in Uganda 04
Codong Village, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 17, 2014 - Codong Village (Agago District) - Teacher Charles Ocana conducts his class under a tree as Agnes Alimo, 10, paces to keep her one-year old brother quiet; babysitting during school is a must for her. Her hours after school - when she's able to attend - are filled with domestic chores.

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Child Labor in Uganda 05
Codong Village, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 17, 2014 - Codong Village, Uganda - Agnes Alimo, 10, left, returns home from school with her one-year old brother (Regan Kidaga) because he would not stop crying. Her sister Vicky Auma, 7, center, and a neighborhood boy, Ogen, 6 (who didn't know his last name) were kept home from school to crush groundnuts. Children constitute an invaluable source of stopgap labour for households re-establishing livelihood strategies in the aftermath of twenty years of war.

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Child Labor in Uganda 08
Obira Village, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 24, 2014 - Obira Village (Nwoya District) - Timo, 9, (he has no last name because he has not been baptized yet) runs towards his mother, Joyce Pacoryema, 42, to cover maize with a tarp; it's about to start raining. Children constitute an invaluable source of stopgap labour for households re-establishing livelihood strategies nine years after the end of the armed conflict with the Lord's Resistance Army.

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Child Labor in Uganda 10
Patonga Town Council, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 19, 2014 - Patonga Town Council (Agago District) - A young girl removes her jacket so that she can wash it along with other clothes. Children constitute an invaluable source of stopgap labour for households re-establishing livelihood strategies. Northern Uganda is recovering from over two decades of armed conflict which resulted in the conscription, abduction and displacement of almost the entire population of the Acholi sub-region. Among the key barriers to schooling in return areas are the long distances to schools, school fees, poor quality of school infrastructure, poor prospects for post-primary education and training, as well as the central role of children in livelihood strategies for income and labor constrained households.

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Child Labor in Uganda 11
Obolokome, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 18, 2014 - Obolokome Village (Agago District) - Catherine Atto, 35, crawls out of her hut as her daughter, Nighty Akwero, 7, second from left, prepares to go to the field. Ms. Atto had an infection on her foot and could not walk, consequently Nighty had to stay home from school to work in the field.

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Child Labor in Uganda 13
Patonga Town Council, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 19, 2014 - Patonga Town Council (Agago District) - Mercy Angom,12, coats the base of one of her family's huts with a fresh coat of cement. Children in the region work long days in the field and attending to other domestic chores, and the pursuit of education is not a realistic goal; they are unable to take advantage of the limited educational opportunities that were not available to their parents.

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Child Labor in Uganda 15
Obolokome Village, Uganda
By ric francis
07 Jun 2015

July 18, 2014 - Obolokome Village (Agago District) - Three brothers, Phillips Ockch, 10, left, Moses Opany, 13, center, and Tonny Ojok, 12, sit watching over the family's cattle - consequently they missed school. Children in the region work long days in the field and attending to other domestic chores, and the pursuit of education is not a realistic goal; they are unable to take advantage of the limited educational opportunities that were not available to their parents.

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Child Labor in Uganda 07
Obira Village, Uganda
By ric francis
06 Jun 2015

July 24, 2014 - Obira Village (Nwoya District) - A group of children collect water for drinking from the River Nile; they had to paddle to a location in the river where the water was relatively clear. Children in the region work long days in the field and attending to other domestic chores, and the pursuit of education is not a realistic goal; they are unable to take advantage of the limited educational opportunities that were not available to their parents.

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Child Labor in Uganda 09
Obira Village, Uganda
By ric francis
06 Jun 2015

July 24, 2014 - Obira Village (Nwoya District) - A girl tries to retrieve a water container that a peer accidentally dropped while collecting water from the River Nile; they had to paddle to a location in the river where the water is relatively clear. Children in the region work long days in the field and attending to other domestic chores, and the pursuit of education is not a realistic goal; they are unable to take advantage of the limited educational opportunities that were not available to their parents.

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Child Labor in Uganda 12
Patonga Town Council, Uganda
By ric francis
06 Jun 2015

July 19, 2014 - Patonga Town Council (Agago District) - Latim Ferdinal, 13, cuts grass along with his mother, right. Children in the region work long days in the field and attending to other domestic chores, and the pursuit of education is not a realistic goal; they are unable to take advantage of the limited educational opportunities that were not available to their parents.

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Child Labor in Uganda 14
Obira Village, Uganda
By ric francis
06 Jun 2015

July 24, 2014 - Obira Village (Nwoya District) - Adam Ginmutye Pamungu, 10, off-loads a container of water collected from the River Nile; he had to paddle to a point in the river where the water is relatively clear. Children in the region work long days in the field and attending to other domestic chores, and the pursuit of education is not a realistic goal; they are unable to take advantage of the limited educational opportunities that were not available to their parents.