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Bangladesh's Jamdani Sari
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
08 Jul 2015

In December 2013, the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated a major success as Bangladesh's Jamdani Sari weaving tradition, a labor-intensive and time-consuming form of hand loom weaving is recognized as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District.

A sari is the traditional garment worn by women in the Indian subcontinent, made up of a long strip of unstitched cloth, ranging from five to nine yards in length, which can be draped in various styles. The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist with one end then draped over the shoulders with the other. The Jamdani Sari is among the oldest styles, at more than 5,000 years old! Some people think that the sari was influenced by Greek or Roman toga, which we see on ancient statues. However, there is no solid historical evidence to this effect.

The sari is essentially designed to suit local conditions in the subcontinent. There are at least six varieties of Bengal handlooms, each deriving its name from the village in which it originated, and each with its own distinctive style. Dhaka was especially renowed for saris of fine muslin, a tradtion that carries on today. Jamdani is basically a transformation of the world famous Dhakai Muslin. According to their variety, fineness and patterns the traditional Dhakai Muslins were divided into specific categories. Among them, Aab-E-Rouhan, Shabnam, Sarband and Jamdani muslin were the most famous. Over the years the first three of these have vanished from history.

The production, marketing and export of Jamdani has somehow maintained its continuity. Dhaka has a history of only four hundred years from 1610 A.D., but the history of the cotton clothes of the region reveals more ancient traditions. Although most of the history of Jamdani weaving os lost in the mists of antiquity, it's known that trade in the fabric was established at least 2,000 years ago.

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Jamdani Sari 01
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 02
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 03
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 04
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 05
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

Portrait of a Bangladeshi weaver of Jamdani Saris in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 06
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 07
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

Portrait of a Bangladeshi weaver of Jamdani Saris in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 08
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 09
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A whole saller of Jamdani Saris shows a piece from his collection in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 10
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

Jamdani Saris are made from the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 11
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A whole saller of Jamdani Saris shows a piece from his collection in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 12
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 13
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 17
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 18
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 19
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 20
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 21
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 23
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 24
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 25
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
07 Jul 2015

A Bangladeshi weaver designs a Jamdani Sari in the village of Rupganj Thana in the outskirts of Dhaka.

Jamdani is the finest Muslin textile produced in Bangladesh's Dhaka District. This time consuming and labor-intensive form of hand loom weaving has been declared intagible cultural world heritage by UNESCO.

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Jamdani Sari 14
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jun 2015

A model shows off a Bangladeshi traditional Jamdani Sari in Dhaka on 13 June 2015 when the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated the Jamdani Sari being recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Jamdani Sari 15
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jun 2015

A model shows off a Bangladeshi traditional Jamdani Sari in Dhaka on 13 June 2015 when the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated the Jamdani Sari being recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Jamdani Sari 16
Dhaka, Bangladesh
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jun 2015

A model shows off a Bangladeshi traditional Jamdani Sari in Dhaka on 13 June 2015 when the Intellectual Property Association of Bangladesh (IPAB) celebrated the Jamdani Sari being recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Muslim and German: Safyah's Story
Berlin, Germany
By luigi serenelli
24 Jan 2015

Safyah Hassan-Yavuz, a 28 years old German Muslim, feels constantly pressured to justify herself for being a Muslim in Germany. She believes that conditions for Muslims in Germany worsened in the wake of Paris attacks. The political movement PEGIDA, or Patriotic European Against the Islamization of the West, has also triggered divisions in German society. This story focuses on a slice of Safyah's life as a Muslim woman with both German and Muslim heritage and her experience in a country going through an identity crisis that has both united people and torn them apart.

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Crimean Tatars under Russian Authority
Crimea
By rafael.yaghobzadeh
12 Mar 2014

Crimean Tatars fear persecution under Russian authority

As Tatars in Crimea seek to preserve their way of life - their language, cultural and religious practices, and political organizations - under Russian authority, a crackdown on voices of dissent from within their community and on Tatar leadership doesn’t seem to be letting up.

On October 6, another young man, 25-year-old Edam Asanov of Bilogorsk was found dead after disappearing on September 29 while protesting the kidnapping of two young men from the community just days earlier. This is the latest in a string of kidnappings, raids and arrests that have shook the Crimean Tatar community in recent months.

Since the first Russian incursions into Ukraine’s Crimea region in February, ethnic Tatars have feared a return to the kinds of persecution and mistreatment the Muslim minority has historically suffered under Russian administration. Events since then seem to highlight the precariousness of their situation.

Days before Russia’s annexation of Crimea, on March 18 hundreds of members of the Tatar community gathered in a cemetery in Simferopol to pay their respects to Reshat Ametov, a 39-year-old found dead after having been missing for over two weeks. According to the local Tatar television channel ATR, police found the tortured body of the activist in a forest outside the Crimean capital. Investigators presumed he was killed by pro-Russian militiamen after he was seen crossing a line of pro-Russian protesters in military fatigues at a protest earlier in the month. The death came as a great blow to the Muslim Tatar community for whom persecution, deportation and violence remain vivid memories.

After the funeral, Remzie Dzhemilev, 87, gathered his family and recounted their history. Like the majority of Crimean Tatars, the Dzhemilevs were deported to Uzbekistan in 1944, a seemingly endless journey by wagon during which six of his family members died. The survivors returned to the Crimea in 1990 after the fall of the former USSR, and have remained there since. Mainly opposed to Russia, today he says that the community tries to preserve their traditions and culture, from language and religion to flags and national symbols, despite increasing fears that renewed Russian control of the Crimea will revisit suffering upon the Muslim minority.

Originating in the great steppes of Central Asia, the Turkic-speaking Tatars were one of the main ethnic groups of Crimea leading up to World War II. Their historical influence on the region is visible in Simferopol’s art and architecture and in their specific relationship to the land. Up until the 18th century, the Crimean Khanate was among the most powerful Muslim states in Central Europe.

Today, Tatars account for just over 10% of the population in this region of south-eastern Ukraine, in particular due to waves of deportations driven by Stalin in 1944. Called the “Sürgünlük” in Crimean Tatar dialect, these deportations led to the relocation of nearly 240,000 Tatars. Those who escaped deportation were often shot on sight, had their boats sunk, or died of cold and hunger trying to flee. Many were also deported to Soviet GULAGs where they would work as indentured servants.

Today, a delicate political situation has ethnic Russians in Crimea rejoicing over their annexation while historically marginalized Muslim Tatars and their organizations feel they have become the targets of a new brand of authoritarian rule from Russia and violence from militant pro-Russian activists. In April and July, the chairman of the Crimean Tatar People’s Movement Mustafa Dzhemilev and Simferopol’s Tatar leader Refat Chubarov were banned from re-entering Crimea for five years. Later, in May, Crimean authorities banned public protests and closed central Simferopol to prevent Tatars from commemorating the deportation.

More recently in September armed, masked men raided the Majlis, the Tatar’s self-governing council in Simferopol, removing a weapon, hard drives and “extremist literature,” according to the Russian Foreign Ministry. Mr. Dzhemilev told the UK daily The Telegraph that he equated this to a robbery.

"The Crimean Tatar nation is now in a most complicated and dangerous position since it has always spoken out against the illegal occupation [of Crimea by Russia]," Dzhemilev said.

Dzhemilev’s son was detained by Russian authorities on murder and weapons charges that he says were acquitted by a Ukrainian court. In a press conference on October 4, he told reporters that his son’s arrest by Russians was “blackmail by Putin.” “The Russians continue to play it in a heavy-handed, Soviet and blatant way,” he said.

Kidnappings, arrests and raids now amount to what Tatar leaders consider an officially sanctioned campaign of harassment and intimidation. On September 27, two more young Tatar men were kidnapped while walking down the street in their native Belogorsk. Witnesses saw a white van pull up next to the men, and throw them inside. 18-year-old Islyam Dzheparov and 23-year-old Dzhebdet Islyamov have not been seen or heard from since then, according to an October 3 report by Radio Free Europe.

"I think it is outrageous, completely outrageous,” Mustafa Asaba, the head of the regional Crimean Tatar Mejlis in Belogorsk, told RFE. “If there were some questions for these young people or anything like that, there are official organs, the police. They could have been summoned for questioning."

Russian authorities in Crimea launched an investigation into the disappearances. However, Tatars in Belogorsk feel that they are being driven into a corner based only on their ethnicity and religion.

"This is an attack on Crimean Tatars," one activist told a gathering of over a hundred locals who came together to pray for the men and protest the disappearances. "Our only guilt is that we are Crimean Tatars, Muslims. I don't see any other motives here.”

Council of Europe Human Rights Commissioner Nils Muiznieks brought up the issues facing the Tatars at a meeting of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) on October 1.

"My biggest concern, to be honest, is the situation of the Crimean Tatars -- a population with a very tragic history," Muiznieks said. "There is an urgent need to strengthen their sense of security, which has been shattered by a series of raids by armed, masked security personnel in religious institutions, schools, Tatar-owned businesses, private homes, and, after my visit, to the Mejlis. The Crimean Tatars have no history of violence or extremism, and the raids are completely disproportionate and should be stopped.”

-- Joe Lukawski with reporting by Rafael Yaghobzadeh for Transterra Media

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Poor earnings of day labor 15
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

A woman counts her total tokens, which she receives as she works. After work she'll calculate how many basket she carried out and this calculation is her earning of the day. Every token value is taka 2.5 ($0.031 USD).
Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 14
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Legs of a worker in bangladesh.
Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day unloading coal they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 13
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 12
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor busket
Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 11
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 10
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Mr. Babul age of 55 have work all day to lead his family.
Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day unloading coal they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 09
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 08
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day unloading coal they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 07
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 06
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor in bangladesh work all day long by unloading coal from cargo.Carrying every basket from cargo to unloading place there have distance about 800 fit.They've earn taka 2.5 ($0.031 USD) per basket.In whole day they've earn taka 180-200 ($2.5 USD).
Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 05
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Every labor have to bring his food from his home.In lunch break they get time only 20min for rest.This time is too short for them to go home & get lunch.So they carried out lunch box from home & at lunch time they eat together under open air.
Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 04
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day by unloading coal they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.

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Poor earnings of day labor 03
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
13 Jan 2013

This is the token that after carrying every bucket of coal unloading the labor earn 1.After work they've calculate how many basket they carried out & this calculation is their earning of the day.Every token value is taka 2.5 ($0.031 USD).
Labor in bangladesh lead their live by poor earning. After working 11 hours a day they have earn less then $2 USD. In modern age they have work manually till now.
According to ILO (International Labor Organization), the harsh reality is that some 375 million working women and men are not able to earn enough to keep themselves and their families above the $1.25 a day extreme poverty line. That is around one in eight of the employed population of the developing world where more than a quarter of working women and men live with their families on $2 a day or less.