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Students Occupy University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
25 Mar 2015

A new wave of student movements and occupations of university buildings is taking place around Europe. In Amsterdam, the 25th of March marked the one month anniversary of the occupation of the Maagdenhuis, an administrative building of the Universiteit van Amsterdam located in the center of the city in Spui street. A group of students are now living in the university space and organising a whole range of activities such as lectures, workshops and presentations with local and international intellectuals who support the movement. They are demanding direct democracy, participation in the management processes, the halt of the financial cut and of the progressive corporatization of the university.

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University of Amsterdam 07
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
25 Mar 2015

Student movement leaders discuss the main events of the occupation.

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University of Amsterdam 08
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
25 Mar 2015

Posters in the Maagdenhuis carry the slogans of the student movement.

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University of Amsterdam 09
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
25 Mar 2015

Posters in the Maagdenhuis carry the slogans of the student movement.

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University of Amsterdam 10
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
25 Mar 2015

The Maagdenhuis, the University of Amsterdam's administrative hub, has been occupied since the end of February 2015.

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University of Amsterdam 11
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
25 Mar 2015

Former students who witnessed student demonstrations in the 1960's visit the Maagdenhuis.

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University of Amsterdam 12
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
25 Mar 2015

A schedule in the Maagdenhuis details the events student movement leaders have organized for each day.

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University of Amsterdam 01
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
24 Mar 2015

Students listen to a lecture by French philosopher Jacques Rancière one month after the occupation of the Maagdenhuis, the University of Amsterdam's administrative hub.

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University of Amsterdam 02
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
24 Mar 2015

Students listen to a lecture by French philosopher Jacques Rancière one month after the occupation of the Maagdenhuis, the University of Amsterdam's administrative hub.

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University of Amsterdam 03
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
24 Mar 2015

Students listen to a lecture by French philosopher Jacques Rancière one month after the occupation of the Maagdenhuis, the University of Amsterdam's administrative hub.

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University of Amsterdam 04
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
24 Mar 2015

Students listen to a lecture by French philosopher Jacques Rancière one month after the occupation of the Maagdenhuis, the University of Amsterdam's administrative hub.

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University of Amsterdam 05
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
24 Mar 2015

Students listen to a lecture by French philosopher Jacques Rancière one month after the occupation of the Maagdenhuis, the University of Amsterdam's administrative hub.

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University of Amsterdam 06
Amsterdam, Netherlands
By Nicola Zolin
24 Mar 2015

Student protesters gather at the entrance of the occupied Maagdenhuis.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
21 Apr 2014

Jan Broers owns two window brothels and a hotel. He does not trust the city council, nor their motives. 'I don't believe there is forced prostitution. I mean, there is, but not here in the Red Light District. Girls who rent my windows buy houses back in Romania, they buy cars here. One even started up a recycling business for her mother back home. They're just here to get rich quick'.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
21 Apr 2014

Jan Broers looks at his maps with hygiene rules, intake forms, rental contracts and regulations, fire prevention documents, etc. 'Renting a room to a girl for a night is not feasible anymore. There are so many forms that need to be filled out and signed that it takes hours.'

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
21 Apr 2014

Jan Broers shows a brochure entitled 'prostitution and exploitation', that the girls who rent his windows need to read. 'If forced prostitution exists, the closing of hundreds of legal windows will only encourage it", he says.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
21 Apr 2014

The manager of a window brothel, by law, has to make sure the prostitutes understand dozens of pages of rules and regulations, which go as far as explaining how to shave a customers' genital area.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
17 Apr 2014

Marcel Kaatee sitting in one of his two closed casinos. The new Bibob law committee (Judgement of Integrity by Public Administration) concluded that he was a potential criminal after finding he had borrowed criminal money from a -back then respected- real estate trader. The Bibob law allows public administration to deny permits to people that cannot be convicted by conventional law. 'I did not commit any crime. I have never been convicted, but any attempt at starting a new business, even something as innocent as a jazz festival, is being obstructed by the council', says Kaatee, who is also a jazz musician. 'Being judged a potential criminal is like being a leper'.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
16 Apr 2014

Mariska Majoor talks to a neighbor in front of her Prostitution Information Centre. She believes that the closing of window brothels will force prostitutes to work in underground networks, where they will be more easily subjected to exploitation and even slavery.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
14 Apr 2014

Jan Otten owns 4 sex theaters and a sex museum in the Red Light District. After years of legal battle, the city council has not been able to prove he was involved in crime. Hundreds of people protested in a march against the attempted closure of his theaters. 'I can tell you one thing: When people come to Amsterdam, it's not for the Rijksmuseum", he says, while talking about the government's clean up project. The Rijksmuseum is a government owned art and history museum.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
12 Apr 2014

Tourists from the United Kingdom came to Amsterdam for their friend Craig's bachelor party. Stag parties are a typical example of belligerent and obnoxious tourism the city council hopes to avoid by refusing to give license to businesses they call "criminogenic". The term criminogenic (producing or tending to produce crime) has sparked controversy, as people who were refused licenses felt they were labeled as criminals. Since April 2014, the city council stopped labeling businesses or people "criminogenic". 'This does not change the policy or the project', says Gijs Goosen, a city official in charge of the Red Light District's transformation project.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
12 Apr 2014

Mata Hari is a new restaurant that opened into what used to be an illegal gambling den. The former club was bought by the city council in a big real estate transaction that involved about 20 other buildings. The restaurant attracts a different crowd from most places in the Red Light District. "As a city council we want the type of people who visit Amsterdam for the museums to also feel at home in the Red Light District", says Gijs Goosen, a city official in charge of the Red Light District's transformation project.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
09 Apr 2014

Simon sits in front of the computer and keeps track of the online advertisements published by the prostitutes who rent rooms at his secret venue located outside the city centre. Some of these prostitutes used to work at legal venues the Netherlands, but felt they were forced to move to illicit businesses after their legal windows was closed.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
09 Apr 2014

Chrystal prepares her room for her next customer. She says she would not want to work behind a legal window because the rental prices are too high. People fear that closing many of the Red Light District's windows will force prostitutes to work in underground networks, where they could be subjected to exploitation and even slavery. Gijs Goosen, a city official in charge of the 1012 Project disagree. 'I believe the pimps will leave the Netherlands to work elsewhere in Europe'.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
09 Apr 2014

Chrystal counted her money after a day of work. Prostitutes working in illegal spaces say it is easy to find customers on the Internet. Critics of the '1012 Project' fear the that closing legal windows will drives prostitution into underground prostitution networks. Gijs Goosen, a city official in charge of the 1012 Project disagree. 'I believe the pimps will leave the Netherlands to work elsewhere in Europe'.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
03 Apr 2014

The window brothels in a narrow alleyway called Bethlehemsteeg in Amsterdan are supposed to be replaced by mainstream businesses to attract a higher class of tourists to the Red Light District. According to 'Project 1012' manager Gijs Goosen, closing windows will also battle forced prostitution. According to the government, 8% to 90% of prostitutes are forced into prostitution. Mariska Majoor is a former prostitute and the spokesperson of prostitutes working in the Red Light District. She thinks this number is ridiculous and not based on anything.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
10 Dec 2013

Van der Laan, mayor of Amsterdam, and two city council members on the stage at a 'Project 1012' symposium. During an interview given on a famous Dutch TV show called 'Brandpunt Reporter', the mayor said the municipality spent 25 million euros to buy properties from alleged criminals in the Red Light District. However, in a private interview with photographer Jeffry Ruigendijk, project manager Gijs Goosen admitted that the government planned to spend 1 billion euros on revamping the Red Light District.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
09 Dec 2013

Business owners, local people and government officials gather to discuss 'Project 1012'. The project is a controversial attempt to clean the Red Light District of crimes like money laundering and forced prostitution.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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Red Light District, Amsterdam
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
07 Nov 2013

The Oudezijds Achterburgwal is one of the few streets in the Red Light District that will keep it's windows.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
06 Nov 2013

The Oudezijds Achterburgwal is one of the few streets in the Red Light District that will keep it's windows.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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Red Light District, Amsterdam
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
06 Nov 2013

Police on horses remove Scottish football supporters from a bar. Football supporters are a typical example of the obnoxious tourism the city council hopes to avoid by refusing to give licenses to businesses like brothels and coffeeshops.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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Red Light District, Amsterdam
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
01 Oct 2013

All window brothels have panic buttons next to the beds. At this window rental company the panic buttons are not only connected to a siren in the street, but also to the landlord's office so that he can help the girls immediately.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The Battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
01 Oct 2013

According to project manager Gijs Goosen, the Trompettersteeg alley, Amsterdam's narrowest alley, will get mainstream businesses instead of window brothels.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.

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The battle for the Red Light District
By Jeffry Ruigendijk
30 Aug 2013

Two members of a stag party get rowdy in front of a prostitute. Prostitution in this part of the Red Light District will soon disappear. The municipality of Amsterdam decided to clean the neighborhood in an attempt to fight forced prostitution and organized crime. Stag parties are a typical example of the obnoxious tourism the city council hopes to avoid.

Project 1012 is named after the postal code of the Red Light District. It aims to clean-up the Red-Light District and stopping the influence of organized crime in the area. It also plans the closure of hundreds of window brothels and cannabis coffeeshops by 2015. This project is is the city’s response to reports documenting human trafficking and the growing influence of organized crime in downtown Amsterdam.

With this project, the city plans to close all businesses unable to prove they are not criminal organizations. Property owners refusing to leave will be expropriated and their properties will be bought by the city to be replaces with boutiques, galleries, restaurants and bars. So far, 109 window brothels have been closed and about 100 more are awaiting for closure. Brothels and shop owners are fighting back in court.