Thumb sm
Bangladesh 'at Risk' due to Climate C...
Dhaka
By zakir hossain chowdhury
28 Jun 2014

Rising global temperatures have been accompanied by changes in weather and climate, and many places have seen changes in rainfall, resulting in more floods, droughts, or intense rain, as well as more frequent and severe heat waves. Climate change is now one of the greatest threats facing the planet.

Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries, as the lives and livelihoods of millions of Bangladeshis are challenged due to climate change. A study by UK researcher Maplecroft cites Bangladesh at the top of a list of 32 nations at risk due to the alarming effects of climate change.

Low lying coastal areas are speculated to be submerged as the sea level rises, and as world temperature continues to go up. Two recent cyclones, Sidr (2007) and Aila (2009) totally devastated the coastal territories of Satkhira and Barguna along with many others in Bangladesh.

Hundreds if not thousands of people have lost their land and their homes to erosion along riverbanks and coastal areas. Bangladesh is one of the countries in the world with the highest proportion of the population living in coastal areas. Some 32% of the habitable land lies in coastal areas, equivalent to 47,211 square kilometers. According to the population census in 2001, about 35 million people, or 28% of the total population, live in these low-lying coastal areas.

Another cause for alarm that exacerbates the effects of climate change on the population in Bangladesh is pollution. By throwing waste chemicals and oil from factories into canals and rivers, soil and groundwater become polluted. Industrial processes are not only a factor in climate change, but also produce toxic waste that threatens Dhaka's natural resources.

Frame 0004
"Kaser Libya"
libya
By Ibrahim AlGhouri
27 Aug 2013

Video about : Tour of "Kaser Libya" to know the geography of this city and its historical impact.

Frame 0004
Arab Water Ministers Meeting in Cairo
Cairo, Egypt
By Video Cairo Sat
07 Jun 2013

The fifth meeting of the Arab Water Ministers Council held on Thursday, June 6, at the headquarters of the Arab League in Cairo to discuss various issue mainly water security headed by the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

The UAE Minister of Environment and Water Dr. Rashid Ahmad Bin Fahad who chaired the meeting, pointed out that the geographical, economical, social and political conditions to the Arab countries have contributed to the diversity of the pressures and challenges faced by the water resources in the Arab countries.

Bin Fahad stressed the importance to enhance joint Arab action in the field of water because of its strategic importance to the countries of the region.

SOUNDBITE 1 (Arabic) - UAE Minister of Environment and Water Dr. Rashid Ahmad Bin Fahad:
“We are today in the process of putting the structure of the strategic plan of water security in the Arab region. The council further has played an active and effective role in highlighting the water issues in the Arab region in the 6th World Water Forum - Marseille in France. I hope the council would continue its effective role in calling for coordination and good preparation for the next World Water Forum that will be held in Korea, 2015.”

The Arab League Assistant Secretary General for Economic Affairs Dr. Mohammad bin Ibrahim Al Tuwaijri said that the Arab League’s Technical Committee would discuss a variety of topics, including the follow up of the implementation of the resolutions of the Arab Economic and Social Development Summit, pertaining the strategy of water security in the Arab region to address the challenges and the future requirements for sustainable development.

For his part, the Arab League Chief Nabil al-Arabi, in his speech, said that the major dangers on the Arab water security in particular and the Arab national security in general are the Israeli ambitions in the Arab waters.

He further added that the problem of water in the region has political, legal, and economic and security dimensions that cannot be separated from the nature of the Arab-Israeli conflict which is not over yet.

SOUNDBITE 2 (Arabic) - Arab League Chief Nabil al-Arabi:
“The challenges that the water sector is facing in the Arab countries are numerous and multifarious particularly in the light of the climate changes and the phenomenon of drought which gripping some areas in the world include the Arab region.”

They also discussed during the meeting the strategy of water security in the Arab region and the preparation for an international conference on Arab water in the Arab occupied territories.

The issue of water is now in the limelight at the regional level due to a decision by Ethiopia to build a dam on the River Nile, promoting Egypt to react alarmingly toward the plan due to concern over volume of water reaching Egypt.

Local News Agency: Middle East Bureau / VCS
Shooting Dateline: June 6, 2013
Shooting Location: Cairo, Egypt
Publishing Time: June 6, 2013
Length: 00:02:17
Video Size: 113 MB
Language: Arabic
Column:
Organized by:
Correspondent:
Camera: VCS

SHOTLIST:
1. Tilt down shot of the Arab League headquarters in Cairo
2. Medium shot of the logo of the Arab League
3. Various shots of the meeting
4. SOUNDBITE 1 (Arabic) - UAE Minister of Environment and Water Dr. Rashid Ahmad Bin Fahad:
“We are today in the process of putting the structure of the strategic plan of water security in the Arab region. The council further has played an active and effective role in highlighting the water issues in the Arab region in the 6th World Water Forum - Marseille in France. I hope the council would continue its effective role in calling for coordination and good preparation for the next World Water Forum that will be held in Korea, 2015.” 5. Various shots of the meeting
6. SOUNDBITE 2 (Arabic) - Arab League Chief Nabil al-Arabi:
“The challenges that the water sector is facing in the Arab countries are numerous and multifarious particularly in the light of the climate changes and the phenomenon of drought which gripping some areas in the world include the Arab region.” 7. Various shots of the meeting
8. Medium shot of the logo of the Arab League
9. Wide shot of the Arab league headquarters with flags of the participant states

Thumb sm
Esplin120711_2385.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
11 Jul 2012

The rate of ocean acidification is expected to accelerate in the near future. Since the industrial revolution, ocean acidification has increased by 30%. Scientists believe that this rate is faster than anything previously experienced over the last 55 million years.

The problem is that even a mild change in PH levels has significant impact on animals with calcium carbonate shells or skeletons. They literally dissolve. Affected animals include krill and plankton as well as coral. This means that the bottom of the food web could potentially become extinct, and in turn so could fish, according to Zoologist Kent Carpenter: "If corals themselves are at risk of extinction and do in fact go extinct, that will most probably lead to a cascade effect where we will lose thousands and thousands of other species that depend on coral reefs.”

Thumb sm
Esplin120710_2336.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
10 Jul 2012

A fisherman wades through the shallows carrying a handful of possessions after a mornings fishing trip.

Attempts to educate fishermen have been made by the environmental community, and attitudes are slowly changing. The Coral Triangle Initiative announced that it saw a decrease in the use of destructive fishing methods in 2012. Although, they stated that other threats such as Population increase, pollution and sedimentation have increased considerably.

Thumb sm
Esplin120710_2384.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
10 Jul 2012

A fisherman on Palawan Island in the Philippines prepares for a fishing voyage out to sea.

Scientists have predicted that by 2100, global temperature rise could result in the extinction of coral in the Coral Triangle. This would lead to an 80% reduction in regional food production.

Thumb sm
Esplin120710_2333.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Fishers tend to target bigger fish, which act as predators in the food web. Biologists have observed a change in the Philippines' species composition, and an increase of fishing for small oceanic fish – anchovies, etc. This is a good indication of overfishing, and of gradual stock collapse, as fishers can no longer catch larger fish to support themselves.

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2331.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

The Philippines Government admits that all targeted species in the Philippines are showing signs of overfishing. Officials also recognise that the current approach to fishing is unsustainable. “Overall, the harvest rate of Philippine fisheries is approximately 30 percent higher than the maximum sustainable yield, which will likely trigger stock collapses in the absence of increased management.” (Department of Environment and Natural Resources)

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2330.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

The majority of people within the Coral Triangle are living in poverty. This increases the social and economic importance of reefs, and reduces their ability to adapt to depleting fish supplies.

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2382.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

The threats to the Coral Triangle are numerous, and often vary from site to site. As such there is not a single answer to the problems faced by these ecosystems. Nevertheless, wide ranges of solutions are being adopted in an attempt to curb this degradation. These include: Marine Protected areas (MPA), gear restrictions, and catch regulations.

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2353.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

A decline in reef biodiversity does not only affect local communities and subsistence fishermen’s food security, though they are likely the hardest hit. According to the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), natural capital contributes significantly to manufacturing and service economies, that in-turn helps stabilise a nations food security. In their report ‘TEEB – The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for National and International Policy Makers’ the UNEP suggest one systemic cause for a lack of local will power to preserve natural resources. “Benefits depend on local stewardship, local knowledge and, in some cases, foregoing opportunities for economic development – yet people on the ground often receive little or no payment for the services they help to generate. This can make it more economically attractive to exploit the resource rather than preserve assets of global worth.”

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2386.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Government figures state that 67% of animal protein in the Philippines is comprised of fish and fish products. This makes fish the nations most important food source, next to rice.

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2351.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

A fisherman prepares his line in a small wooden shack as his daughter plays behind. Surrounded by sublime tropical waters, the 7,000+ island shorelines of the Philippines are home to 40 million people - 45% of its population.

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2350.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Hook and line fishing techniques are seen as a solution compared to large scale commercial methods like trawler nets, that are considered dramatically unsustainable. Commercial fishing is having a drastic impact on fish stocks around the globe. Populations of targeted species such as Bluefin Tuna and Cod have reduced 90% since the 1960s, according to professors at the University of British Columbia.

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2349.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

Hook and line fishing techniques are seen as a solution compared to large scale commercial methods like trawler nets, that are considered dramatically unsustainable. Commercial fishing is having a drastic impact on fish stocks around the globe. Populations of targeted species such as Bluefin Tuna and Cod have reduced 90% since the 1960s, according to professors at the University of British Columbia.

Thumb sm
Esplin120709_2347.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
09 Jul 2012

It is not only coral reefs that are affected by global warming. Other important environments, such as mangrove forests and sea grass beds, which provide habitats for hundreds of thousands of fish species and other organisms, are also threatened. Further destruction and loss to these domains will have profound effects on the productivity of costal regions and the lives of people reliant on them.

Thumb sm
Esplin120707_2383.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
07 Jul 2012

According to the WWF, “The decreased productivity of coastal ecosystems will reduce the food resources and income available to coastal communities in the Coral Triangle. By 2050, coastal ecosystems will only be able to provide 50% of the fish protein that they do today, leading to increasing pressure on coastal agriculture and aquaculture.”

Thumb sm
Esplin120705_2345.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
05 Jul 2012

The coral triangle is located in South East Asia and supports 120 million people, across 6 countries, over an area of 1.6 billion acres. Overfishing, pollution, overpopulation and climate change are putting this essential ecosystem in danger.

Thumb sm
Esplin120705_2344.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
05 Jul 2012

The coral triangle is located in South East Asia and supports 120 million people, across 6 countries, over an area of 1.6 billion acres. Overfishing, pollution, overpopulation and climate change are putting this essential ecosystem in danger.

Thumb sm
Esplin120705_2343.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
05 Jul 2012

Tourist diving boats float above a reef in the North-East Philippines. Such tours can have a devastating impact on the health of reefs as participants inevitably kick or displace coral formations. The excess pollution caused by nearby hotels and resorts are an often unseen yet leading factor to the decline of a reefs health.

Thumb sm
Esplin120705_2380.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
05 Jul 2012

The coral triangle is located in South East Asia and supports 120 million people, across 6 countries, over an area of 1.6 billion acres. Overfishing, pollution, overpopulation and climate change are putting this essential ecosystem in danger.

Thumb sm
Esplin120705_2388.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
05 Jul 2012

The coral triangle is located in South East Asia and supports 120 million people, across 6 countries, over an area of 1.6 billion acres. Overfishing, pollution, overpopulation and climate change are putting this essential ecosystem in danger.

Thumb sm
Esplin120704_2339.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
04 Jul 2012

Government statistics suggest that in one year 1,370 tons of coral trout alone were exported, creating revenues of US$140 million. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) disputes this figure; suggesting high incidences of illegal and unreported trafficking, significantly expand the official records. They go on to state relaxed trade agreements are one of the leading factors creating additional demand on the Philippines reefs resources.

Thumb sm
Esplin120704_2338.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
04 Jul 2012

Government statistics suggest that in one year 1,370 tons of coral trout alone were exported, creating revenues of US$140 million. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) disputes this figure; suggesting high incidences of illegal and unreported trafficking, significantly expand the official records. They go on to state relaxed trade agreements are one of the leading factors creating additional demand on the Philippines reefs resources.

Thumb sm
Esplin120704_2337.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
04 Jul 2012

According to the Coral Triangle initiative, “The impacts of overfishing and to some extent destructive fishing practices on coral reefs are evident in the biomass of reef associated fish." It is reported that more than 50% of the reef sites in the Philippines assessed are overfished.

Thumb sm
Esplin120623_2381.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
23 Jun 2012

A fisherman farms abalone instead of heading out to sea to fish. Communities throughout the Philippines are being encouraged to seek alternative sources of income from fishing. According to the WWF, “The decreased productivity of coastal ecosystems will reduce the food resources and income available to coastal communities in the Coral Triangle. By 2050, coastal ecosystems will only be able to provide 50% of the fish protein that they do today, leading to increasing pressure on coastal agriculture and aquaculture.”

Thumb sm
Esplin120622_2389.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
22 Jun 2012

The cultivation of kelp and seaweed for pharmaceutical industries is being developed by some communities as an alternative source of income to prevent an over reliance of fishing for an income, thereby reducing the stress on local fish populations.

Thumb sm
Esplin120620_2327.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
20 Jun 2012

Children play in a harbour in the Southern Philippines. Scientists have predicted that by 2100, global temperature rise could result in the extinction of coral in the Coral Triangle. This would lead to an 80% reduction in regional food production.

Thumb sm
Esplin120619_2387.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
19 Jun 2012

A child helps sort the catch on a small fishing vessel in the Southern Philippines. With nine percent of the total global reef cover, its national waters provide significant annual fish yield. Increasingly, fish catch are being sold for export, with China and Hong Kong the primary destination.
There is a billion-dollar enterprise in the Asia-Pacific region for live reef food fish trade (LRRFFT). The Philippines is a significant contributor to this industry.

Thumb sm
Esplin120618_2379.jpg
By Mark_Esplin
18 Jun 2012

A Filipino fisherman wears a mask to protect against the sun as he spends the morning catching octopus from a small canoe. Though largely seen as being sustainable, subsistence fishermen with a hook and line can still have an impact on their local ecology. Jared Diamond, an ecological anthropologist, claims the common belief that indigenous people conserve their resources is wrong. He writes that historically when people encounter the limits of their resources, catastrophe results.